Aerosol Powders for Inhaled Tuberculosis Treatment

Optimization and Scale Up of Spray Dried CPZEN-45 Aerosol Powders for Inhaled Tuberculosis Treatment

Ian E. StewartPhillip G. DurhamJacob M. SittenauerAranza P. BarredaGrayson W. StowellCarmella MoodyJeffery B. MechamCatherine SimpsonSharon DailySara E. MaloneyMark D. WilliamsDiana Severynse-Stevens & Anthony J. Hickey

Pharmaceutical Research (2022)



Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most serious diseases caused by a single organism. Multiple (MDR) and extensively (XDR) drug resistant disease poses a threat to global health and requires new drugs and/or innovative approaches to treatment. A number of drugs have been proposed as inhaled therapy for TB, frequently prepared by spray drying. CPZEN-45 is a novel anti-tubercular drug that has poor oral bioavailability but has shown promise when administered via inhalation.


Excipient-free CPZEN-45 HCl has been spray dried into a powder with physicochemical characteristics, aerodynamic particle size distribution, and delivered dose suitable for consideration as an inhaled product.


The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the powder delivered using a RS01 inhaler were 2.62 ± 0.04 μm and 1.76 ± 0.09, respectively. Additionally, the powder was physically and chemically stable after storage at ambient conditions for >1.5 years with particle size similar to freshly manufactured product. Overages in spray dried powder were recycled the powder and resprayed into drug product likewise resulting in negligible change in quality thus allowing for further preclinical characterization as necessary. CPZEN-45 was scaled up using pilot-scale manufacturing equipment where the density of the powder was increased to facilitate larger delivered doses without affecting the aerodynamic performance properties.


The spray dried powders were suitable for pharmacokinetics, efficacy and preclinical toxicology studies. The final method of manufacture may be used directly for CGMP particle manufacture to support IND and Phase I clinical trials and beyond.